This definition is given both by Hesychius and Suidas. God shall live in, fill, and rule your hearts; and, in what He fills and influences, neither Satan nor sin can have any part. You must therefore be perfect, just as your heavenly Father is perfect.'. My own obstinacy and uncharitableness must render me utterly unfit to receive any good from God’s hands, or to worship him in an acceptable manner; bat the wickedness of another can be no hinderance to me, when I have endeavored earnestly to get it removed, though without effect. Homer, Iliad i, 330, calls the supreme gods, 55. This grand Sanhedrin not only received appeals from the inferior Sanhedrins, or court of twenty-three mentioned above; but could alone take cognizance, in the first instance, of the highest crimes, and alone inflict the punishment of stoning. Thou hast nothing which is thy own, and thou shouldst not pledge another’s property. To know the nature of mercy, we have only to consult the grammatical meaning of the Latin word misericordia, from which ours is derived. Think not that I am come to destroy the law— Do not imagine that I am come to violate the law those mentioned in the preceding verse, which should make the first verse of this chapter. And all these man-slayers and the like, who are not liable to death by the Sanhedrin, if the king of Israel will slay them by the judgment of the kingdom, and the law of nations, he may, etc.’ Maym. µlçwryb µlçwryl µlçwry ‘Jerusalem, For Jerusalem, By Jerusalem.-The Temple, For the temple, By the temple.-The Altar, For the altar, By the altar.-The Lamb, For the Lamb, By the Lamb.-The Chambers of the Temple, For the chambers of the temple, By the chambers of the temple.-The Word, For the Word, By the Word.-The Sacrifices on Fire, For the sacrifices on fire, By the sacrifices on fire.-The Dishes, For the dishes, By the dishes.-By all these things, that I will do this to you.’ TOSAPHT. We must not love in tongue, but in deed and in truth. In this History written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, the Spirit of God so governed their hearts, that although they were four in number, yet in effect and purpose they so consent, as though the whole had been composed by any one of them. I would observe, that it is made use of in the Septuagint to express that action of endearment; and which is made use of by an apocryphal writer, He who showed him mercy; i.e. Let such leave the judgment of their cause to Him for whose sake they suffer. The original word, those mentioned in the preceding verse, which should make the first verse of this chapter. ayrgna angaria, and it has precisely the same meaning: viz. Whatever mercy a man shows to another, God will take care to show the same to him. I scarcely know which to prefer; as brother is more conformable to the Jewish mode of address, it should be retained in the text: the other reading, however, tends to confirm that of the Codex Graevii on Matthew 5:43. The holy blessed God answered, I do not command this because I need light; but that you may reflect light upon me, as I have illuminated you:-that the people may say, Behold, how the Israelites illustrate him, who illuminates them in the sight of the whole earth.” See more in Schoettgen. Parkhurst. The Gospel According to St. Matthew. aiwnia, ever-during,” 2 Corinthians 4:18. Being a breach of the law of God, it is the way to everlasting misery. A Jew might swear, but he must not be too abundant in the practice. This term implied, among the Jews, the highest enormity, and most aggravated guilt. 2. tw ponhrw ought to be translated. Lord, change the , to complete-to perfect its connection and reference, to accomplish every thing shadowed forth in the Mosaic ritual, to fill up its great design; and to give grace to all my followers, , to fill up, or complete, every moral duty. But I have it not. The Jews always thought that every outrage should be resented; and thus the spirit of hatred and strife was fostered. In the former verse, Christ speaks their sense, and in the first clause of this, his own, in application to it. That this saying, one jot or one tittle, is a proverbial mode of expression among the Jews, and that it expressed the meaning given to it above, is amply proved by the extracts in Lightfoot and Schoettgen. such a one must be put to death by the Sanhedrin; but he that hires another to kill his neighbor, or that sends his servants, and they kill him, or that violently thrusts him before a lion, or the like, and the beast kills him-any one of these is a shedder of blood, and the guilt of shedding of blood is upon him, and he is liable to death by the hand of Heaven, but he is not to be put to death by the Sanhedrin. , they who are hard pressed upon and pursued with repeated acts of enmity. It is composed of two words: miserans, pitying, and cor, the heart; or miseria cordis, pain of heart. See his works, vol. alkyh ‘By the TEMPLE, it is in our hand, etc.’ KETUBOTH and BAB. Do not equivocate; mean what you assert, and adhere to your assertion. friend) to him who fell among the thieves? THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO MATTHEW The position of the Gospel according to Matthew as the first of the four gospels in the New Testament reflects both the view that it was the first to be written, a view that goes back to the late second century A.D., and the esteem in which it was held by the church; no other was so frequently quoted in the noncanonical literature of earliest Christianity. Aged people are inclined to add to these words, And the mercy and blessing of God. 7. The Gospel According to St. Matthew (Holy Bible) This page is being displayed without its intended CSS styles in web.css. twfwrp prutoth make a kontarik, which is exactly the same with those words in Mark 12:42, paraklhqhsontai, from eqnikoi heathens, is adopted by Griesbach, instead of This one precept is a sufficient proof of the holiness of the Gospel, and of the truth of the Christian religion. AT We have a compound word in English, which once fully expressed the meaning of the original, viz. There are two observable things in the words. plhsion by the LXX. Verse 10. None but he who has the mind of Christ. This class of men was detestable among the Romans, the Greeks, and the Jews, for their intolerable rapacity and avarice. He who uses any oath, except what he is solemnly called by the magistrate to make, so far from being a Christian, he does not deserve the reputation, either of decency or common sense. 15: sec. “Happy is he who gains the knowledge of the first cause of all things; who can trample on every fear, and the doctrine of inexorable FATE; and who is not terrified by death, nor by the threatened torments of the invisible world!”. No being is indestructible or unfailing in its nature but G, ; no being is independent but him: as the body depends for its nourishment, health, and strength upon the earth, so does the soul upon heaven. Tanchum, fol. It is commonly called the sermon on the mount. ‘When the Arabs salute one another,’ according to Niebuhr, ‘it is generally in these terms, Salam aleikum, Peace be with you; in speaking which words they lay the right hand on the heart. 3dly. Though all earth and hell should join together to hinder the accomplishment of the great designs of the Most High, yet it shall all be in vain-even the sense of a single letter shall not be lost. 13 'You are salt for the earth. Quesnell remarks here: “The Christian life is something very high and sublime, to which we cannot arrive without pains: while it withdraws us from the earth, and carries us nearer heaven, it places us in view, and as a mark, to the malice of carnal men.”. What mercy can those vindictive persons expect, who forgive nothing, and are always The words of God, which point out his designs, are as unchangeable as his nature itself. But judge you as you are? The Gospel According to Matthew - Chapter 5 - Verse 48. It is worthy of observation, that the word Because it is natural to man to avenge himself, and plague those who plague him; and he will ever find abundant excuse for his conduct, in the repeated evils he receives from others; for men are naturally hostile to each other. One quotation, of the many produced by Kypke, will amply show in what detestation they were held among the Greeks. It is not said Matthew 5:21. Doddridge supposes that the salutation our Lord refers to, Matthew 5:47, If ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? Of borrowing and lending, 42 Of love and hatred, 43-46. The student is also referred to supplemental material which will help in studying these chapters in Matthew. But it is very likely that our Lord refers here merely to traditions and glosses relative to the ancient Mosaic ordinance; and such as, by their operation, rendered the primitive command of little or no effect. In Hebrew, To a king of flesh and blood, who took to wife a king’s daughter: he saith to her, ‘Wait and fill me a cup;’ but she would not: whereupon he was angry, and put her away; she went, and was married to a sordid fellow; and he saith to her, ‘Wait, and fill me a cup;’ she said unto him, ‘Rekah, I am a king’s daughter, etc.’ Idem in Psalm 137. By the ancients, we may understand those who lived before the law, and those who lived under it; for murder was, in the most solemn manner, forbidden before, as well as under, the law, Genesis 9:5, 6. Theocritus being asked, Which of the wild beasts were the most cruel? — This place may receive light from the following passage in Maundrell’s Travels. In certain places, where oaths are frequently administered, people have been known to kiss their thumb or pen, instead of the book, thinking thereby to avoid the sin of perjury; but this is a shocking imposition on their own souls. Matthew 5:22 An Aramaic term of contempt. prutoth make a kontarik, which is exactly the same with those words in Mark 12:42, two mites, which are one farthing. This definition is given both by Hesychius and Suidas. This is probably what our Lord alludes to in this place. marah, to rebel, a rebel against God, apostate from all good. ought to be translated. 1) According to Matthew 1:1, who was Jesus the son of? Pray for them-This is another exquisitely reasonable precept. Upon the place beneath. This however is not the only reason for it to be rightly listed in the first place, but also because it forms a link between the Old Testament and the New Testament. In all these eases, our blessed Lord points out the spirituality of the law; which was a matter to which the Jews paid very little attention. Light of the world. 5:5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth. And this last does more especially hit the scribes and Pharisees, who arrogated to themselves only to be called Gospel According to Matthew, first of the four New Testament Gospels (narratives recounting the life and death of Jesus Christ) and, with The Gospels According to Mark and Luke, one of the three so-called Synoptic Gospels (i.e., those presenting a common view). This is certainly our Lord’s meaning. He whose soul is not delivered from all sin, through the blood of the covenant, can have no Scriptural hope of ever being with God. Murder from the beginning has been punished with death; and it is, probably, the only crime that should be punished with death. , is omitted by nearly a hundred MSS., and some of them of the very greatest antiquity and authority; also by the Coptic, Ethiopic, Armenian, Gothic, and Sclavonian versions; by four copies of the old Itala; and by Origen, Cyril, Theophylact, Euthymius, and Hilary. 24 leave your offering there before the altar, go and be reconciled with your brother first, and then come back and present your offering. Only that which is connected with the rock, the soul that is in union with Christ Jesus by the Holy Spirit, can preserve its savor, and be instrumental of good to others. And, besides the reference to the valley of Hinnom, he seems to refer to that penalty used by the Sanhedrin of burning-the most bitter death that they used to put men to; the manner of which was thus: They set the malefactor in a dunghill up to the knees; and they put a towel about his neck, and one pulled one way, and another the opposite, till, by thus strangling him, they forced him to open his mouth. If we do not relieve him, we have no right to insult him. In Matthew, the end-time Elijah duly appears in the person of John the Baptist, preparing the way for 'the Lord', one whose identity is revealed at his baptism as Jesus, God's 'beloved Son' (3.17). Verse 31. R. Judah saith, ‘He that saith, By JERUSALEM, saith nothing, unless with an intent purpose he shall vow towards Jerusalem.’ Where also, after two lines coming between those forms of swearing and vowing, are added, Now when he saw the crowds, he went up on a mountainside and sat down. Compare the Matthew Beatitudes to Jesus' Beatitudes in Luke . Our word meek comes from the old Anglo-saxon meca, or meccea, a companion or equal, because he who is of a meek or gentle spirit, is ever ready to associate with the meanest of those who fear God, feeling himself superior to none; and well knowing that he has nothing of spiritual or temporal good but what he has received from the mere bounty of God, having never deserved any favor from his hand. To all our readers, Please don't scroll past this. Those who originally followed Christ, considered him in the light of a Divine teacher; and conscious of their ignorance, and the importance of his teaching, they put themselves under his tuition, that they might be instructed in heavenly things. Having the mind averse from contentions, and preferring peace and concord to temporal advantages, is most solemnly recommended to all Christians. cap. Our Lord here alludes to the valley of the son of Hinnom, Ghi hinom. Our whole conduct should be a perpetual comment on the doctrine we have received, and a constant exemplification of its power and truth. This text has been considered a proper foundation on which to build not only the doctrine of a purgatory, but also that of universal restoration. Poor in spirit— One who is deeply sensible of his spiritual poverty and wretchedness. But I am come. , or angari. If not to salute be a heathenish indifference, to hide hatred under outward civilities is a diabolic treachery. BEING.”. p. 149. think on that; And mercy then will breathe within your lips, How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend’ring none?”. hqyr from the Hebrew And thus our Savior equals the sin and penalty in a very just parable. Dr. Lightfoot is not perfectly satisfied with the usual mode of interpreting the 22nd verse of this chapter. The Arabs of Yemen, who seldom see any Christians, are not so zealous but that sometimes they will give them the Salam aleikum.’, “Presently after he says: ‘For a long time I thought the Mohammedan custom, of saluting Christians in a different manner from that made use of to those of their own profession, was an effect of their pride and religious bigotry. Verse 19. 55. Of these there were two classes; the superior, who were Romans of the equestrian order; and the inferior, those mentioned in the Gospels, who it appears were mostly Jews. manners; and recommending his salvation to all the circle of their acquaintance. See the note on “Matthew 5:14”. Of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, 20. ‘When turtles and young pigeons were sometimes sold at Jerusalem for a penny of gold, Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel said, galal, to cry, or lament grievously; because a merciful man enters into the miseries of his neighbor, feels for and mourns with him. See Wetstein, Kypke, Wolf, etc. A participation of all the blessings of the new covenant here, and the blessings of glory above. ‘When the Arabs salute one another,’ according to Niebuhr, ‘it is generally in these terms, Salam aleikum, Peace be with you; in speaking which words they lay the right hand on the heart. The Gospel of Matthew also helps us see parallels between the ministries of Moses and Jesus Christ. His disciples— The word This comprehends all calumny, slander, etc., all that the tongue can effect. do not even the publicans so? other case in which Jesus Christ admits of divorce. — That he might have the greater advantage of speaking, so as to be heard by that great concourse of people which followed him. izzy__morin. The Gospel According to St. Matthew (Italian: Il vangelo secondo Matteo) is a 1964 Italian biblical drama film in the neorealist style, written and directed by Pier Paolo Pasolini.It is a cinematic rendition of the story of Jesus (portrayed by non-professional actor Enrique Irazoqui) according to the Gospel of Matthew, from the Nativity through the Resurrection. Whosoever shall say to his brother, ‘Racha,’ a nickname, or scornful title usual, which they disdainfully put one upon another, and very commonly; and therefore our Savior has mentioned this word, the rather because it was of so common use among them. plhrwsai, to fill up, or complete, every moral duty. Under this expression, which was commonly used by the prophets to signify the land of Canaan, in which all temporal good abounded, Judges 18:9, 10, Jesus Christ points out that abundance of spiritual good, which was provided for men in the Gospel. If men, slighting their own mercies, cry out, This is impossible!-whom does this arguing reprove-God, who, on this ground, has given a command, the fulfillment of which is impossible. antidikov, properly a plaintiff in law-a perfect law term. eirhnh, peace, is compounded of SANHEDR. And earthly power doth then show likest God’s. to teach the doctrine of God. Verse 40. Blessed are the poor in spirit, etc.— Or, happy, Let us show at least mildness and compassion, when we can do no more; and if we cannot or will not relieve a poor man, let us never give him an ill word nor an ill look. Pray for them which despitefully use you— The Persian messengers had the royal authority for pressing horses, ships, and even men, to assist them in the business on which they were employed. 5 Laying Down the Law. 5) What is the meaning of the name Emmanuel? He sees all men as children of God, and members of Christ, or at least capable of becoming such. Shall be in danger of the judgment— Vatican. Some people disapprove of his association with sinners, tax collectors, and prostitutes. Whosoever-shall break one of these least commandments— The Pharisees were remarkable for making a distinction between weightier and lighter matters in the law, and between what has been called, in a corrupt part of the Christian Church, mortal and venial sins. See 2 Kings 23:10; 2 Chronicles 28:3; Jeremiah 7:31, 32. with Notes by Sir J. Cheke, Also VII. Cristopher Sandlin. For theirs is the kingdom of heaven.— That spiritual kingdom, explained Matthew 3:2, and that kingdom of glory which is its counterpart and consequence. 26-105; CCCC MS 106 Edition of a letter of Sir John Cheke to Dr Matthew Parker, dated at Cheekstoke, 6th February 1552, taken from CCCC MS 106, App. Those who make the adversary, God; the judge, Christ; the officer, Death; and the prison, Hell, abuse the passage, and highly dishonor God. He who showed him mercy; i.e. Dr. Lightfoot is not perfectly satisfied with the usual mode of interpreting the 22nd verse of this chapter. THE HOLY GOSPEL OF JESUS CHRIST, ACCORDING TO ST. MATTHEW. The original word, , which we translate gift, is used by the rabbins in Hebrew letters. and NEAR. is causeless anger, which he thinks too plain to require explanation; but into the two following he enters in considerable detail: . They were abhorred in an especial manner by the Jews, to whom the Roman government was odious: these, assisting in collecting the Roman tribute, were considered as betrayers of the liberties of their country, and abettors of those who enslaved it. It does not appear that there is any. See his W. , vol. may satisfy their lusts without destroying their bodies and souls, utterly, by an open violation of his law. The Gospel of St. Matthew is one of the most quoted books of the Bible. The Gospel According to Matthew Study # 6 Chapter 5:1-12 The Beatitudes (Matt. Or our Lord may refer to the little ornaments which certain letters assume on their tops, which cause them to appear like small branches. In Hebrew, rea, signifies friend, which word is translated. A particular place in this valley was called Tophet, from. A Christian, properly speaking, cannot be an enemy to any man; nor is he to consider any man his enemy, without the fullest evidence: for surmises to the prejudice of another can never rest in the bosom of him who has the love of God in his heart, for to him all men are brethren. Matthew chapter 5 summary, Jesus the Holy Messiah from God started His ministry. A preacher, or private Christian, who has lost the life of Christ, and the witness of his Spirit, out of his soul, may be likened to this salt. He completed it in himself by submitting to its types with an exact obedience, and verifying them by his death upon the cross. Originally it is applied to a piece of mechanism, as a machine that is complete in its parts. Volume 5 The Gospel According to St. Matthew Chapter 15. luw, I loose, violate, or dissolve-I am not come to make the law of none effect-to dissolve the connection which subsists between its several parts, or the obligation men are under to have their lives regulated by its moral precepts; nor am I come to dissolve the connecting reference it has to the good things promised. This one precept is a sufficient proof of the holiness of the Gospel, and of the truth of the Christian religion. epi 17-19. A distressed object: and, 2. to, merits, or is guilty of-and the word gehenna, hell-fire, which he explains as I have done above, he comes to the three offenses, and their sentences. See Schoettgen. this is God’s word; but who believes it? Thirdly, When our bodies are forced to undergo all kinds of toils, vexations, and torments, Matthew 5:41. th krisei tw sunedriw, but here, The way to improve the injustice of man to our own advantage, is to exercise under it meekness, gentleness, and long-suffering, without which disposition … p. 327, etc., edit. Pray for them-This is another exquisitely reasonable precept. This place was near Jerusalem, and had been formerly used for those abominable sacrifices, in which the idolatrous Jews had caused their children to pass through the fire to Molech. Murder is the most punishable of all crimes, according to the written law, in respect both of our neighbors and civil society. hwh w[mh By this habitation (that is, by this TEMPLE) I will not rest this night, unless they be sold for a penny of silver.’ CHERITUTH, cap. The holy blessed God answered, ‘Solomon and a thousand such as he shall perish, but the least word shall not perish out of thee.’“, In Shir Hashirim Rabba, are these words: “Should all the inhabitants of the earth gather together, in order to whiten one feather of a crow, they could not succeed: so, if all the inhabitants of the earth should unite to abolish one Let us show at least mildness and compassion, when we can do no more; and if we cannot or will not relieve a poor man, let us never give him an ill word nor an ill look. k caph into It is profitable for thee that one of thy members— Men often part with some members of the body, at the discretion of a surgeon, that they may preserve the trunk, and die a little later; and yet they will not deprive themselves of a look, a touch, a small pleasure, which endanger the eternal death of the soul. , on the authority of Codd. This virtue, therefore, is no other than a lively emotion of the heart, which is excited by the discovery of any creature’s misery; and such an emotion as manifests itself outwardly, by effects suited to its nature. thn ghn, the land. Verse 26. ii. ], “Should any one, in the words of Hosea, Hosea 5:7, They have dealt treacherously, The Gospel according to St. Matthew - Chapter 19. 6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for uprightness: they shall have their fill. Brown Chapters 19 and 20 Theology 86 Terms. Sir William Jones lays by far too much stress on the casual introduction of such sentiments as this in the Asiatic writers. Verse 41. j cheth, he would ruin the world.” [Because the command would then run, Let every thing that hath breath PROFANE the Lord. b beth; a 1st. the Jews. On this authority Wetstein and Griesbach have left it out of the text. “He whose words agree not with his private thoughts is as detestable to me as the gates of hell.” See on Joshua 2: at the end. The judgment, the council of twenty-three, which could inflict the punishment of strangling. this is God’s word; but who believes it? Chapter Summary.Shem-Tob, a Jewish physician writing in the 1380's, included a Hebrew Gospel of Matthew as the last book in his polemic against Christianity. Verse 39. The Arabs of Yemen, who seldom see any Christians, are not so zealous but that sometimes they will give them the Salam aleikum.’, “Presently after he says: ‘For a long time I thought the Mohammedan custom, of saluting Christians in a different manner from that made use of to those of their own profession, was an effect of their pride and religious bigotry. It has. There is convincing evidence that this old Hebrew Gospel is a revision (passing through many copyists and editors) of the Hebrew Gospel written by the Apostle himself. First, When we receive in our persons all sorts of insults and affronts, Matthew 5:39. KIDUSHIN. — It was a custom among the Scythians, when they wished to bind themselves in the most solemn manner, to swear by the king’s throne; and if the king was at any time sick, they believed it was occasioned by some one’s having taken the oath falsely. The first is the change of case from what was before; there it was said. Has it appeared unreasonable and absurd to some? 6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for uprightness: they shall have their fill. That is, to have the matter brought before a senate, composed of twenty-three magistrates, whose business it was to judge in cases of murder and other capital crimes. Revenge, at such an expense, is dear indeed. Righteousness here is taken for all the blessings of the new covenant-all the graces of the Messiah’s kingdom-a full restoration to the image of God! the Jews. Before following Jesus, Matthew was a public servant (see Matthew 5:46; 9:10; 10: 3), a Roman official charged with collecting taxes and duties. And 3dly. The rabbins have a saying similar to this: “It is better for thee to be scorched with a little fire in this world, than to be burned with a devouring fire in the world to come.”. Being destitute of the true riches, he is tremblingly alive to the necessities of his soul, shrinking with fear lest he should perish without the salvation of God. en, connecting into one: for as WAR distracts and divides nations, families, and individuals, from each other, inducing them to pursue different objects and different interests, so PEACE restores them to a state of unity, giving them one object, and one interest. Do not-the publicans— Herod. This is still the characteristic of a genuine disciple of Christ. Matthew 1-5. An unkind thought of another may be the foundation of that which leads to actual murder. Previous Next . The Jews thought themselves authorized to kill any Jew who apostatized; and, though they could not do injury to the Gentiles, in whose country they sojourned, yet they were bound to suffer them to perish, if they saw them in danger of death. against, and FELIX, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas: Subjecit pedibus; strepitumque Acherontis avari! Check out The Gospel According to St. Matthew, Chapter 5 by The Bible Readers on Amazon Music. Verse 46. Based on the Revised Standard Version-Catholic Edition, this volume leads readers through a penetrating study of the Gospel of Matthew, using the biblical text itself and the Church’s own guidelines for understanding the Bible. For a full explanation of this verse, see Luke 18:10, etc. 13 Lessons for a Sunday School Quarter . xiv., and when he mentions their refusing to show travelers the way, Non monstrare vias, etc., or to point out to them where they might find water to drink when thirsty with journeying, takes no notice of their not saluting those of another nation; yet there is no reason to believe, from these words of CHRIST, that many of them at least would not, and that even a Jewish public an received no salutations from one of his own nation, excepting brother publicans. Of the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees. It stands upon a very eminent and conspicuous mountain, and is S, . At length I observed in Natolia, that the Christians themselves might probably be the cause that Mohammedans did not make the same return to their civilities that they did to those of their own religion. 2. Matthew 5:27 Exodus 20:14. Mourning or distress, on account of this impoverished state, to which consolation is promised. In some good MSS. There is but a step between thee and death. “But who can bring a clean out of an unclean thing?” God Almighty-and, however inveterate the disease of sin may be, the grace of the Lord Jesus can fully cure it; and who will say, that he who laid down his life for our souls will not use his power completely to effect that salvation which he has died to procure. HAD k caph; There seems to be nothing of embracing thought of in this case, though that, doubtless, was practised anciently among relations, and intimate friends, as it is among modern Asiatics.”. — They dishonor the great God, and break this commandment, who use frequent oaths and imprecations, even in reference to things that are true; and those who make vows and promises, which they either cannot perform, or do not design to fulfill, are not less criminal. 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